Tuesday, April 05, 2005

China, Five Dynasties, Ten Kingdoms, and Sung periods

Further general information is available in the following: Edward A. Kracke, Jr., Civil Service in Early Sung China, 960–1067 (1953), a monumental work; James T.C. Liu, Ou-yang Hsiu, an Eleventh-Century Neo-Confucianist, trans. from the Chinese (1967), and Reform in Sung China: Wang An-shih (1021–1086) and His New Policies (1959), both works attempting to relate general trends through historical figures; and Brian E. McKnight, Village and Bureaucracy in Southern Sung China (1971), an account coming down to the later period as well as the local scene. Jacques Gernet, Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250–1276 (1962; originally published in French, 1959), provides vivid descriptions. See also Patricia Buckley Ebrey (ed. and trans.), Family and Property in Sung China: Yüan Ts'ai's Precepts for Social Life (1984), an excellent picture of family relations as studied in the 12th-century work by Yüan Ts'ai; Thomas H.S. Lee, Government Education and Examinations in Sung China (1985), a description of education and its relationship to the civil service; and Brian E. McKnight (trans.), The Washing Away of Wrongs: Forensic Medicine in Thirteenth-Century China (1985), a translation of an early work on the topic.

Sunday, April 03, 2005

Halepa, Pact Of

Also called  Treaty Of Halepa, Halepa  also spelled  Khalépa,   convention signed in October 1878 at Khalépa, a suburb of Canea, by which the Turkish sultan Abdülhamid II (ruled 1876–1909) granted a large degree of self-government to Greeks in Crete as a means to quell their insurrection against Turkish overlords. It supplemented previous concessions to the Cretans—e.g., the Organic Law Constitution (1868) and the Cyprus Convention (July 4, 1878), which had been

Friday, April 01, 2005

Barreto, Francisco

Barreto served in the East Indies, was governor of Portuguese India, and was probably instrumental in exiling Luís de Camões to Macau after the poet had published criticisms of Portuguese administration in India. In 1569 Barreto was entrusted by King Sebastian of Portugal with an expedition to

Tuesday, March 29, 2005

Mind, Philosophy Of

One attribute that sharply distinguishes man from the rest of nature is his highly developed capacity for thought, feeling, and deliberate action. Here and there in other animals, rudiments,

Monday, March 28, 2005


Provincia, central Argentina, with an area of 65,161 square miles (168,766 square km). From the Sierra Grande in the west, which rises to 9,462 feet (2,884 m), the land slopes eastward to the great Pampa grasslands, being drained by the Primero, Segundo, Tercero, Cuarto, and Quinto rivers. Only the Tercero reaches the Paraná River; the others terminate in swamps or in the saline Laguna Mar Chiquita in the

Saturday, March 26, 2005


The study of the interaction of sliding surfaces. It includes three subjects: friction, wear, and lubrication (qq.v.). There is a difficulty in that friction is generally characterized as a branch of physics or mechanical engineering, wear is part of the material science of metallurgy, while lubrication is a branch of chemistry. Tribology is thus a complex interdisciplinary

Thursday, March 24, 2005

O'neill, Eugene

In full  Eugene Gladstone O'Neill  foremost American dramatist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1936. His masterpiece, Long Day's Journey into Night (produced posthumously 1956), is at the apex of a long string of great plays, including Beyond the Horizon (1920), Anna Christie (1922), Strange Interlude (1928), Ah! Wilderness (1933), and The Iceman Cometh (1946).